70 Years of No. 38 Squadron


September 2013 marked the 70th anniversary of the formation of 38 SQN. The 38 SQN motto reads ‘Equal to the Task’, and few RAAF units have equalled the variety of operations on which 38 SQN has engaged.

Today, the Squadron is equipped with eight King Air 350 light transports at RAAF Base Townsville, with 60 Air Force personnel and 25 contractors from Hawker Pacific on staff. On the occasion of the anniversary, Chief of Air Force, AIRMSHL Geoff Brown, congratulated the unit’s members on its rich record of service.

”Over the last 70 years, 38 SQN has worked continuously to support both peacetime and military operations, from supporting troops on the frontline to providing much-needed relief following disasters,” AIRMSHL Brown said.

“This anniversary is an opportunity to celebrate the squadron’s achievements, as well as remember those who paid the ultimate price and lost their lives in the squadron’s service.”

38 SQN was established at RAAF Base Richmond on 15 September 1943. Since then, it’s become the Air Force’s longest continuously serving operational flying squadron. Only the Central Flying School (effectively a non deployable training establishment) has a longer unbroken flying record, in continuous service since 1940.

Humble Origins

The genesis of 38 SQN came in 1943, which was a turning point for Australian military transport in the South-West Pacific Theatre of World War Two. The Douglas C- 7 Dakota, which became a staple of Allied air transport throughout the war, began arriving from the United States in serious quantities to equip RAAF transport Squadrons.

The Dakota was far more capable than the existing RAAF transports at the time, which were largely civilian airliners that had been pressed into military service. The Dakota featured a larger fuselage that could accommodate bigger loads and carry them further. Its introduction to widespread RAAF service coincided with the increased concentration of RAAF transport operations in northern Australia and into New Guinea.

In southern Australian states, a requirement for military transport persisted, both to service the majority of military headquarters as well as reach out to Defence units located along the eastern seaboard of Australia and into Western Australia. To this end, 38 SQN was formed in September 1943 with a fleet of Lockheed Hudsons, a design which had its roots as a commercial airliner before the outbreak of war in Europe saw it converted into a patrol bomber. In 38 SQN service, the Hudson would come full circle- each aircraft’s offensive armament, which included nose mounted guns and a dorsal gun turret, were removed. Seating capacity within each aircraft was fitted for 14 passengers.

Much like its present-day duties, the role of 38SQN was to transport essential Defence personnel around Australia and into the immediate region, accomplished in the Hudson at a ponderous 200 knots. The Hudson was unpressurised, with a maximum range of 3000km.

The Hudson allowed 38 SQN to create a transport network from RAAF Base Richmond (with a detachment created in Gorrie, near Larrimah in the Northern Territory). In February 1944, it began re-equipping with the Douglas Dakota, which would be operated by the Squadron for nearly 30 years. The Dakota had an increased capacity of 28 passengers,along with the ability to carry cargo and aero-medical evacuation patients or bulkier items of cargo.

Following the Japanese Surrender in August 1945, 38 SQN flew the first Australian aircraft into Singapore and Japan, with one crew taking  Australian journalists to Hiroshima. The unit participated in the return of Australian personnel (including former POWs) from the South Pacific Theatre. Former CO 38 SQN, SQNLDR John Balfe, recounts inhis published wartime memoir ‘….And Far From Home’ the emotional scene of 38SQN Dakota crews inviting former POWs – many of whom held captive since the fall of Singapore in 1942 – to the cockpit of the Dakota, allowing them to view Darwin from the air as dawn broke. For these rescued POWs, it was their first sight of Australia, and brought many to tears.

Sadly, many were never to return. On 18 September 1945, 38 SQN experienced its worst ever air disaster with the loss of Dakota A65-61, which crashed in Irian Jaya, in present-day Indonesia. All of the 28 RAAF and Army members on board were killed when, during a return flight from the Japanese surrender in Morotai, their aircraft collided with a mountain range. Little was known about the cause of the accident, and the wreckage of the aircraft – and remains of its occupants – was not iscovered until 1970.

A not-so Cold War

The immediate post-war years featured some of the most colourful tasking in 38SQN’s history. The unit was spared the axe during the post-war disarmament, and along with 36 SQN and 37 SQN, formed part of the fortnightly courier flights from Australia to Japan (via Morotai, the Philippines and Okinawa). A 38 SQN detachment was established at RAAF Base Pearce and in Port Moresby (then still part of the Australian territory of Papua New Guinea).

In May 1946, three Dakotas from 38 SQN transported 25 tonnes of pig bristle from Chungking in China to Hong Kong over two weeks. Pig bristles were essential part of paintbrushes, which were a necessary supply for the postwar housing boom. It was extremely hazardous tasking—there were no modern maps of China available to the crews, and the country was descending into civil war. The flight from Hong Kong to Chungking was an 1100km return trip with no available divert airfields. Alongside Royal Air Force (RAF) Dakota crews conducting the task for the United Kingdom, 38 SQN completed eight return flights to Chungking and brought the pig bristles out.

Dakota A65-69 on gate guard at Gatow, near Berlin

Dakota A65-69 on gate guard at Gatow,                                      near Berlin 


In August 1948, 38 SQN gave half its pilots to an ‘Australian Squadron’ flying RAF Dakotas during the Berlin Blockade—also known as the Berlin Airlift. Alongside crews from 36 SQN, the 38 SQN members flew 2062 sorties to Berlin.

In June 1950, 38 SQN was sent to Changi in Singapore (and later Kuala Lumpur), to provide transport for Commonwealth units engaged with communist forces in the jungles of Malaya. Airlift again proved an essential means of delivering cargo over difficult terrain. During this deployment, half of 38 SQN’s strength was sent to Japan to form 30 Transport Flight, supporting Australian units engaged in the Korean War.

In December 1952, 38 SQN returned to Australia from Malaya, having carried nearly 1.7 million pounds of supplies; 17,000 passengers;and 326 aero-medical evacuation patients. On its return to Australia, the squadron effectively absorbed 36 SQN, which in turn was re-established in Japan. In early 1954, HRH Queen Elizabeth II conducted her first Royal Tour of Australia as the reigning monarch, largely flown by 38 SQN during the visit.

In March 1954, 38 SQN took over VIP flying duties in Canberra, as well as becoming the RAAF’s air movements and transport training squadron. It was relocated to RAAF Base Richmond in 1958, with a number of its personnel posted to 36 SQN to operate the C-130A Hercules.

During the early 1960s, 38SQNwas responsible for a number of ‘hack’ aircraft at RAAF Base Richmond, intended to provide currency flying for Air Force pilots in the Sydney, Williamtown and Canberra area, as well as being available for communications duties. Amongst the Squadron’s

fleet included a Meteor fighter, Canberra bomber and Winjeel trainer.

Enter the Bou

The need to replace the venerable Dakota was well and truly evident by the 1960s. The respective views of Army and Air Force on replacing the Dakota were formed from their recent operational experience. Army wanted a light transport that could carry 32 troops over short distances and support personnel on the frontline. Air Force, having recently introduced the C-130 to great effect, wanted a pressurised transport that could carry 9,000lbs (four tonnes) of cargo over 1300km. The Army won out, with the DHC-4 Caribou being ordered for 38SQN.

The first Caribou were collected from the factory in Canada in early 1964, and flown over 25,000km to Australia. Subsequent deliveries of Caribou that year saw aircraft dispatched directly to the RAAF Transport Flight Vietnam (RTFV). While 38QN itself was not deployed to the Vietnam War, it played a hand in training and supporting the workforce that served with the RTFV, later re-titled 35 SQN, until its withdrawal in 1972.

In the meantime, 38  SQN Caribou were operated in Port Moresby under ‘Detachment A’, with Papua New Guinea (then an Australian territory) being a key proving ground for 38 SQN personnel. The Squadron’s Colours were presented by HRH Prince Philip in April 1971.

On 28 August 1972, 38 SQN suffered its only fatal accident with the Caribou. Aircraft A4-233 came down in poor weather whilst flying through the Kudjeru Gap in Papua New Guinea, claiming the lives of three RAAF crewmembers along with an Army Ground Liaison Officer, an Instructor, and 19 Army Cadets. Four Cadets survived the accident, discovered by rescue teams four days later.

In September of 1973, the Dakota was finally retired from 38 SQN service. From March 1975 until 1979, the United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) saw 38 SQN deploy a Caribou to the Kashmir region between the two countries. Taking over courier duties from a Royal Canadian Air Force Caribou crew, flying 

conditions in the Kashmir were perhaps some of the most challenging in the squadron’s history, with some airfields as high as 8500ft and some minimum safe heights being 21,000ft – close to the Caribou’s maximum ceiling.

From August to October of 1975, 38 SQN provided Caribous to support Red Cross operations in East Timor, then emerging from Portugal’s colonial empire. During these operations, a 38 SQN Caribou held the ‘distinction’ of being the only RAAF aircraft to be hijacked, as a group of Timorese Democratic Union soldiers forced A4-140 into the air with 54 people on board on September 4. The aircraft was just able to arrive in Darwin safely.

For much of the 1970s and 80s, 38 SQN’s work entailed support to Army exercises and assistance to civil communities in Australia and Papua New Guinea. In December 1992, the unit relocated from RAAF Base Richmond – where it had spent the majority of the past 49 years – to RAAF Base Amberley. From 1997, the Caribou’s cockpit was fitted with Night-Vision Goggle compatible lighting.

In 1999, 86 WG Detachment B was established in Darwin, with 35 SQN and 38 SQN providing Caribou and crews to support operations in East Timor. The deployment continued through the disestablishment of 35 SQN in December 2000, which saw 38 SQN becoming Air Force’s sole Caribou operating squadron. The Caribou detachment returned from East Timor in December 2001, however in mid- 2003, 38 SQN was deployed with its Caribou to the Solomon Islands as part of the peacekeeping mission ’Operation Anode’.

Dingo Airlines

Support to the civil community continued throughout the Caribou’s twilight years, with 38 SQN relocating from RAAF Base Amberley to Townsville in December of 2007. Civil aid to the community continued following flooding in PNG in November 2007; Floods in Ingham, Queensland, in February 2009; and following the crash of a commuter airliner in Kokoda in August of that year. By 2009 however, the writing was on the wall for 38 SQN’s Caribou days. Low serviceability and ageing airframes were leaving 38 SQN out of many operational deployments, and in December 2009, the Caribou was finally retired from RAAF service. 38SQN had operated the type for 45 years – more than two thirds the Squadron’s history.

The announcement had been made to retire the Caribou in early 2009, with a decision made to reallocate three King Air 350s in Army service to 38 SQN. Another five new aircraft would be introduced to 38 SQN, leased from Hawker Pacific and operated from RAAF Base Townsville.

The King Air was intended for 38 SQN as a interim light transport, until the selection of a Battlefield Airlifter. In May 2012, it was announced that the C-27J Spartan would be selected as Air Force’s next Battlefield Airlifter, however it would be operated by a re-established 35 SQN. The net result of this is that the King Air will equip 38 SQN into the foreseeable future.

On the 70th anniversary of 38 SQN, the unit finds itself in a similar circumstance to its formation- providing a light courier and transport service with a twin engine aircraft, intended to provide a flexible regional service to Defence. Its recent history has continued to focus its operational efforts within Australia and in several operations within the Asia Pacific region. For example, the commitment to supporting activities in Papua New Guinea has continued, including the 2012 National Election in that country.

In 2011, several 38 SQN pilots were attached to the United States Air Force to operate MC-12W Liberty, an Intelligence/Surveillance/Response variant of the King Air. These pilots were able to operate the aircraft for an extended period in the Middle East Area of Operations, receiving invaluable experience.

In November 2013, the position of CO 38 SQN handed over from incumbent WGCDR Stew Dowrie to incoming WGCDR Michael Burgess-Orton. On the occasion of the unit’s 70th Anniversary, WGCDR Dowrie attributed the squadron’s continuous record to always being needed to provide a reliable transport service.

“I think there was never the opportunity to shut us down; we weren’t necessarily at the forefront of operations, but we were always there doing the business,” WGCDR Dowrie said.

“For their day, each of those aircraft was considered reliable, dependable and highly effective.”

“We’re pretty much doing the same job with the same great calibre of people; it’s just the aircraft that have changed,” he said.

“We provide niche light transport that’s flexible, efficient and saves people time and money. But it’s not just for VIPs; it’s for anyone who needs to move quickly.”

The squadron also plays a role in giving pilots valuable aviation experience, producing flying instructor candidates and junior pilots capable of transitioning to the large modern fleet Air Force operates.



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